What is Aromatherapy?
Aromatherapy is a plant-based and natural medicine that uses fragrant essential oils as a means to enhance and promote holistic health, healing, well-being and happiness. It offers us a unique, natural and wonderful way of looking after ourselves each day physically, psychologically, emotionally and spiritually. If practiced safely with the right information, advice and guidance it can enrich our lives, bring a sense of happiness to our being, nourish our skin and provide a form of healthcare that offers a natural, and highly effective solution.
I absolutely love Aromatherapy. Making blends for all sorts of ailments and especially the spritzes. Feedback has been terrific. They calm overactive children, soothe anxious states in adults and dogs. Improve mood and health.
SCROLL DOWN FOR ESSENTIAL OIL LIST
Below, we have the safety first for people with conditions to check against before using products with those essential oils. Soaps are generally exempt from this level of safety precaution due to them being “a wash off” product. Avoid direct use of these essential oils contained within a massage oil blend, leave on skin product such as body moisturiser, lip balm, etc or if you are aware you have allergies, are pregnant or epileptic.
Some essential oils cause photo sensitivity, which means exposure to the sun on the skin will cause burning. Usually it is citrus oils which are photo sensitizing.
People who suffer with epilepsy, heart problems and high blood pressure need to avoid the use of some essential oils such as Rosemary and Peppermint.
During pregnancy many essential oils need to be avoided (This may not be a complete list at time of reading).
Because of uterine stimulation or possible toxicity, during pregnancy use a half dilution of essential oils and avoid ajowan, angelica, star anise, aniseed, basil, bay laurel, calamintha, all types of cedarwood, celery seed, cinnamon leaf, citronella, clary sage, clove, cumin, sweet fennel, hyssop, juniper, labdanum, lovage, marjoram, myrrh, nutmeg, parsley, peppermint, rose, rosemary, Spanish sage, snakeroot, spearmint, tarragon and white thyme.
As with all essential oils, never use them undiluted. Do not take internally unless working with a qualified and expert practitioner. Keep away from children and pets.
If applying an essential oil to your skin always perform a small patch test after you have properly diluted the oil in an appropriate carrier. Apply to inside wrist and apply a bandage over it, leave for 12 hours or more and check if there is any redness, bumps or irritation. if no symptoms, the product is safe to use. This is the same for any products which are high in essential oils or ‘leave on’ products.
With aroma inhalers, please smell lightly the first time to make sure it’s agreeable and you are not allergic.
SAFETY INFORMATION ON ESSENTIAL OILS:
Astragalus Root Astragalus membranaceus Safe to consume when used appropriately.
Bay Essential Oil Laurus nobilis Tested non-toxic at low levels. Avoid when pregnant. Possible skin irritant. Potentially sensitizing.
Bergamot Essential Oil Citrus bergamia Tested non-toxic at low levels. Phototoxic. Possible carcinogenic. Slight possible skin irritant.
Camphor Essential Oil Cinnamomum camphora Tested non-toxic at low levels. Potential toxic reaction. Possible convulsant, neurotoxic. Avoid when pregnant.
Carrot Seed Essential oil Daucus carota to be avoided during pregnancy and epilepsy.
Cinnamon Leaf Essential Oil Cinnamomum zeylanicum Tested non-toxic at low levels. Potential skin, mucus membrane irritant, sensitizing. Should not be used when pregnant or by children.
Clove Essential Oil Eugenia caryophyllus Skin and mucus membrane irritant, Potentially sensitizing. Use only highly diluted. Possible hepatoxic.
Echinacea Root Echinacea angustifolia Some authorities suggest it should not be used in autoimmune diseases.
Elderberry Sambucus nigra/canadensis Safe to consume when used appropriately.
Eucalyptus Essential Oil Eucalyptus globulus Tested non-toxic at low levels. Avoid with high blood pressure and epilepsy. Not for small children.
Garlic Alium sativum Occasional gastrointestinal disturbance in sensitive individuals. Some authorities feel that consumption of fresh garlic in children might be dangerous and possibly contraindicated in pregnancy. The long history of garlic as a food has established it to be safe in reasonable quantities. These warnings may not apply to processed garlic products.
Ginseng Root Panax quinquefolius & Panax ginseng Avoid during hypertension but some authorities disagree with this caution.
Hyssop Essential Oil Hyssopus decumbens Tested non-toxic at low levels. Avoid with high blood pressure, epilepsy. Possible neurotoxic. Should not be used when pregnant or by children.
Lapacho (Pau d’Arco) Bark Tabebuia avelleneda Safe to consume when used appropriately.
Lavender Essential Oil Lavandula angustifolia Tested non-toxic at low levels.
Lemon Essential Oil Citrus limonum Tested non-toxic at low levels. Potential skin irritant, sensitizing. Phototoxic.
Lemongrass Essential Oil Cymbopogon citratus Tested non-toxic at low levels. Should not be used when pregnant or by children. Possible skin irritant, sensitizing.
Melissa Essential Oil Melissa officinalis Possible skin irritation. Avoid when pregnant.
Myrrh Essential Oil Commiphora myrrha Avoid when pregnant. Possibly toxic in high levels.
Niaouli Essential Oil Melaleuca quinquenervia Should not be used when pregnant or by children.
Palmarosa Essential Oil Cymbopogon martini Tested non-toxic at low levels.
Peppermint Essential Oil Mentha piperita Tested non-toxic at low levels. Avoid when pregnant, lactating. Skin irritant. Keep away from infants.
Ravensara (True) Essential Oil Ravensara aromatica Should not be used when pregnant or by children.
Rosemary Essential Oil Rosmarinus officinalis Should not be used when pregnant, with epilepsy or by children.
Sage Essential Oil Salvia officinalis Tested non-toxic at low levels. Possibly toxic at high levels. Should not be used when pregnant/lactating or by children. Possible neurotoxic.
Tea Tree Essential Oil Melaleuca alternifolia Tested non-toxic at low levels. Possible skin irritant.
Thyme (Red) Essential Oil Thymus vulgaris Tested non-toxic at low levels. Skin, mucus membrane irritant. Avoid with high blood pressure, pregnancy. Potential hepatoxic at high levels.
Thyme (Linalol) Essential Oil Thymus vulgaris Should not be used when pregnant or by children. Possible skin irritant.
Schnaubelt, Kurt. Advanced Aromatherapy. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press. 1998.
Sheppard-Hanger, Sylla. The Aromatherapy Practitioner Reference Manual, Vol. 1, Vol. 2. Tampa: Atlantic Institute of Aromatherapy. 1997.
Tisserand, Robert. The Art of Aromatherapy. Saffron Walden: The C.W. Daniel Company Ltd. 1991.
Tisserand, Robert. Aromatherapy to Heal and Tend the Body. Wilmot, Wisconsin: Lotus Press. 1988.
Amyris relaxes and calms the mind, helping to alleviate stress and anxiety. It is also said to uplift the mood and have an aphrodisiac-like effect when used in small amounts in a blend.
Antiseptic, sedative, improves circulation. Very calming to the skin and the mind.
decongestant and emollient properties. It is beneficial for helping calm your mind and muscle relaxation, as well as minimizing stress and tension and releasing anxiety. This herbal oil helps in improving mental clarity and makes you feel at peace.
In addition, the essential oil works great in skin regeneration and helps slow down aging. It has a cooling property that assists in relieving irritability, frustration and sexual tension. Amyris oil is a great choice among poets, artists and musicians as it said to help improve creativity and imagination.
Basil Ocimum basilicum
Basil oil has been known to help clear the mind and relieve intellectual fatigue, while giving clarity and mental strength. Antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, cephalic, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, nervine, stimulant, stomachic, tonic.
Avoid in epilepsy or while pregnant. May cause skin irritation.
Bay Laurel Laurus nobilis
Bay oil can be used in the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia, muscular pain, circulation problems, colds, flu, dental infection, hair growth, general health of the scalp, diarrhea and skin infections. Effective for sprains, strains and bruises.
Analgesic, anesthetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, aperitive, carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative.
Avoid while pregnant. May cause skin irritation.
Bergamot – One of my ultimate favourite oils.
For psychological well-being it has a soothing yet stimulating effect. It encourages a positive outlook and a more joyful mood. Using this oil is a safe, natural way to alleviate depression and lethargy. With relaxing compounds as well, bergamot is also good for relieving stress, nervous tension, and anxiety.
It has strong antiseptic and antibiotic properties. Bathing in water with bergamot oil can help keep the skin clean and free from bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Can also benefit the flu, colds, and infections of the urinary tract. Possessing a bright aroma, Bergamot is a beautiful addition to aromatherapy blends.
- Antidepressant – helps prevent and alleviate depression
- Anti-inflammatory – alleviates inflammation, promotes cooling
- Antispasmodic – relieves spasms and cramps
- Antiviral- destructive to viruses
- Carminative – settles digestion and may assist in preventing gas
- Circulation tonic
- Relaxing, restorative, calming
- Emotionally uplifting
- Supports the release of repressed emotion
- Helps reduce insomnia and anxietyBergamot is used to treat stress, depression, anxiety, anorexia, and a number of infections including skin infections like psoriasis and eczema. It is used to stimulate the liver, digestive system and spleen, and provide an overall lift to those suffering from a general malaise. One of the main benefits of bergamot oil is that it is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). However, it is recommended to not use this oil on children less than 5 years of age.
This oil can possibly result in skin irritation (dilution is recommended). Repeated use can result in extreme contact sensitization. Avoid direct sunlight or ultraviolet light for up to 48 hours after use of stay on creams, balms and oils.
Borage Seed Oil Borago officinalis
is one of the best choices for anti-aging, and wrinkle reducing, product lines where it offers regenerative, and firming, properties helping to restore hydration and elasticity.
Calendula calendula officinalis
Anti-bleeding, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, styptic, cicatrizant and fungicide. For burns, wounds, eczema, greasy skin, skin inflammation and eruption and against bites of insects.
- Analgesic, anti-neuralgic, antiseptic, anti-spasmodic, decongestant, expectorant, insecticide, febrifuge, carminative, stimulant, sudorific, vermifuge and tonic.
By promoting sweating, cajuput oil cools down the body and helps with infections such as colds, laryngitis and bronchitis. It is also helpful for asthma, sinusitis and a sore throat.
It calms the digestive system, soothes colic, enteritis, dysentery, vomiting. Spasms, arthritis, rheumatism and muscular aches and pains can also benefit from it.
Not only does it help with skin conditions such as acne and psoriasis, it is also used to ward off insect bites from lice and fleas.
Carrot seed oil has been traditionally used in for the relief of arthritic and rheumatic pain and assists in the treatment of fluid retention. Carrot seed oil may be used in skin care to improve the tone of mature skin and for the treatment of damaged and aged skin. Eczema, gout, toxin build-up, water retention. It has one of the highest, natural, sources of Beta Carotene (pre-cursor to Vitamin A), giving it very effective anti-oxidant fighting ability. It is well known for it’s ability to rejuvenate a dull, poor complexion and add strength and lustre to the hair.
This powerful essential oil can cure infections, protect against their effects, and it has antiseptic properties, including its ability to prevent tetanus. When externally applied, it is said that carrot seed oil can cure infections on the skin and in open wounds. It is extremely effective in curing sores, gangrene, psoriasis, ulcers, rashes, carbuncles and other such problems. One of the best choices for regenerative, and anti-aging applications, damaged skin treatments, and facial products.
Cedarwood oil benefits the skin by its sedating ability which relieves itching. Its astringent action is great for acne, oily skin, as well as for hair and dandruff. It helps with chest and urinary infections, acts as a general tonic and has a pronounced effect on mucus membranes.
It has a calming and soothing effect on the mind and is of great help in conditions associated with anxiety and nervous tension. It is also of value in cases of arthritis and rheumatism.
Acne, arthritis, bronchitis, coughs, cystitis, dandruff, dermatitis, insect repellent, stress.
Cedarwood oil is often used as a calming agent to help alleviate stress and anxiety. It provides a spiritual lift. It also plays a role in aiding respiratory problems as well as skin issues. Use Cedarwood to help ease urinary tract infections, too.
Chamomile oil (Chamaemelum /Anthemis nobile) The therapeutic properties of Roman chamomile oil are analgesic, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, anti-depressant, anti-neuralgic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, sedative and nervine. Calms acne, eczema, rashes, wounds, dermatitis, dry and itchy skin and other allergic conditions in general. Chamomile is an anti-inflammatory herb and thus works well as a soother for a variety of skin irritations, including haemorrhoids, eczema, psoriasis, cuts, bruises, sunburn and blisters. Chamomile is also proven to calm the nerves, relax the mind and body and promote sleep.
Abscesses, allergies, arthritis, boils, colic, cuts, cystitis, dermatitis, dysmenorrhea, earache, flatulence, hair, headache, inflamed skin, insect bites, nausea, neuralgia, PMS, rheumatism, sores, sprains, strains, wounds. Chamomile is a powerful calming agent, as well as antibiotic, antiseptic, antidepressant and overall mood lifter. The German variety is often better suited to battle inflammation, specifically urinary tract and digestive inflammation. Both also have analgesic properties and can help to eliminate acne.
Chamomile – German
Also known as Blue Chamomile. Contains azulene which gives it the blue color. Anti-inflammatory.
Abscesses, allergies, arthritis, boils, colic, cuts, cystitis, dermatitis, dysmenorrhea, earache, flatulence, hair, headache, inflamed skin, insect bites, insomnia, nausea, neuralgia, rheumatism, sores, sprains, strains, wounds.
Chamomile: for treating a variety of skin conditions. Topical chamomile treatments can reduce inflammation and allergic reaction activity. Look for a cream containing 3 to 10-percent crude drug chamomile content and follow the label for dosage directions.
Cinnamon is a common kitchen ingredient that can also be used in aromatherapy to reduce drowsiness and irritability.
This essential oil has been rumored to treat a variety of conditions, but is mostly commonly used to relieve muscle and nervous tension. Contains hormone-like substances related to estrogen which are helpful during menopause.
Cloves are another spice that can be found in many recipes. In aromatherapy, the clove can be used as an antiseptic and pain-reliever. Very effective for toothache pain relief.
The cypress tree is typically found in the Mediterranean region. Its essential oil can be used to treat low blood pressure and poor circulation. Contains hormone-like substances related to estrogen which are helpful during menopause.
Eucalyptus is a powerful treatment against respiratory issues. In addition it is used as an antiseptic, antispasmodic, decongestant, diuretic and stimulant. It also has cooling properties, which gives it deodorizing characteristics; therefore, it helps fight migraines and fevers. This cooling capability also helps with muscle aches and pains.
Anti-parasitic, purges against enteric fermentations. For all gynecological problems, water retention and cystitis.
Frankincense (Boswellia carterii)
Helps build and maintain a healthy immune system, Promotes cellular health, Reduces the appearance of scars and stretch marks, Calming and soothing to the skin. It is a powerful astringent meaning that it can protect skin cells, reduce the signs of aging and help lift and tighten the skin. It can also reduce inflammation and reduce the appearance of dark spots. Read more about some of the incredible benefits of frankincense oil here.
Anxiety, asthma, bronchitis, extreme coughing, scars and stretch marks. Anxiety, depression, fatigue exhaustion and burnout, fear, grief, happiness and peace, insecurity, loneliness, panic and panic attacks and stress. Calming and uplifting, a smoky scent with a hint of lemon. Helps to lengthen and deepen breathing, traditionally used in meditation. (Best to avoid in first trimester of pregnancy.) Refreshing, anti-inflammatory and immunizer. For asthma and bronchitis.
Geraniums are familiar flowers that can be found in many yards throughout the country. This perennial plant can also be used to treat a variety of skin conditions and infections. It reduces inflammation and helps lock moisture into the skin. As an added bonus, this oil is also prized for it ability to brighten moods and restore balance. Contains hormone-like substances related to estrogen which are helpful during menopause.
For wounds, burns, thrombosis, cirrhosis and acne. It helps circulation and cholesterol problems.
The helichrysum plant is part of the family of sunflowers that produces a healing oil that can reduce inflammation and encourage tissue regeneration. The oil has powerful antibacterial properties and is often used to help treat breakouts.
The beautiful jasmine flower has been used to make everything from tea to perfume. Its essential oil can also be used in aromatherapy to calm the nerves and treat depression and insomnia. Jasmine has been known to ease depression and childbirth, in addition to enhance libido. Its great for respiratory problems, addiction issues, and reducing tension and stress.
The juniper berry is a standard ingredient in Gin. While most people might view this as medicine, the juniper berry’s essential oil can also be massaged in the skin to treat arthritis, varicose veins, and other conditions.
Lavender Lavendula Angustifolia
Lavender is surely the most universal essential oil in the world and boasts hundreds of uses. Lavender oil has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic properties. It is aromatic, deodorant, insecticide and a sedative, It stimulates and supports the immune system and hastens healing. Topically, it is sometimes used for burns, dandruff, infections, inflammation, insect bites and stings, rashes, scars, sore muscles, stress and sunburn. It is considered one of the safest oils for use by the general population.
Antiseptic, analgesic, tonic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, decongestant, antidepressant, calmative, sedative, antibiotic, and anti-infectious. Lavender is a healing aid against colds, flu and migraine.
What more can be said about lemons? They’re used in all sorts of recipes from salad dressings to lemonade. The strong citrus smell of the lemon essential oil is also used to treat sore throats, coughs, and other infections. It improves concentration, aids in digestion and eases symptoms of acne and arthritis. Lemon oil is a multifaceted essential oil. It helps with everything from skin irritation to digestion to circulation problems. It is a natural immunity booster and can even help reduce cellulite! Lemon oil helps to alleviate headaches and fever, and is a quick mood enhancer.
Lemon grass can be used a pain-reliever. Analgesic, antidepressant, antiseptic and insecticidal. For digestive and hepatic problems.
It is very uplifting to the body and mind. Very light and improves concentration.
It promotes sureness of self by cleansing the aura and releasing negativity in the mind; and facilitating the opening of the solar plexus and heart chakras where much of our personal power is held.
I also get that lime can help to release cellular memory of shock especially in terms of accidents. Use for horse or riding accidents; and car accidents for sure.
Calming, antispasmodic and anti-wrinkle. For acne, greasy skin, urine retention, obesity, dyspepsia, enteric problems and insomnia.
Marjoram aids in anxiety and stress relief, combats fatigue and depression and alleviates respiratory and circulatory issues.
Antiseptic, deodorant, disinfectant, insecticidal stomachic and calming. For acne, dermatitis, sudation, bloat, dyspepsia, heart arrhythmia, hypertension and nervous tension.
Antispasmodic, refreshing and calming. For chronic cough, asthma, bronchitis, colic, menopause problems, stress, migraines, vertigo, insomnia and hysteria.
Melissa is calming and uplifting to the emotions. Makes a good rescue remedy for cases of shock, panic or hysteria. Its antidepressant, hypertensive, hypnotic-sedative, and nervine properties make it indicated for anxiety, depression, hypertension, insomnia, migraine, hysterics, nervous crisis, tension, fear, shock, grief, and anger. Melissa is useful for calming the stress response of elevated blood pressure and slowing down the heartbeat.
Its astringent, antimicrobial and antiseptic properties have been used to treat acne & boils as well as mild inflammatory conditions. It finds specific use in the treatment of infections in the mouth such as ulcers, gingivitis, pyorrhea, as well as catarrhal problems associated with pharyngitis & sinusitis. Myrrh oil comes from a dried resin extracted from the Commiphora myrrha tree, and is another ancient oil that has very strong hydrating properties. Myrrh contains powerful antioxidants and anti-fungal properties making it a wonderful and soothing addition to skin care.
Properties : stimulant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, expectorant, antispasmodic, carminative. It was also used to help with asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, gum infection, gingivitis, mouth ulcers and sore throat. Used in religious ceremonies since ancient times. I use this in my tooth powder.
Neroli is an essential oil used in many perfumes and beauty products. Known to improve circulation and skin health. Refreshing, calming and nervine. For parasites, hemorrhoids, exhaustion and depression.
Peptic, calefacient, antioxidant and analgesic. For bloat, dyspepsia, sea sickness and muscle pain.
Calming, antispasmodic and anti-wrinkle. For skin care, obesity, fluid retention, obesity, constipation, nervous tension and stress. This fruit’s essential oil can be used to alter moods and lower high blood pressure.
Palmarosa is antiseptic, antimicrobial and bactericidal.
patchouli oil has long been used as a perfume. The patchouli essential oil can also be used as a cell rejuvenation and as an anti-fungal treatment. Patchouli serves as a powerful skin care agent; it even promotes skin cell growth when applied directly to the skin. Patchouli helps to relieve anxiety, depression, fatigue, curb addiction, reduces cellulite and bloating.
Black pepper is good for those of us who worry constantly and have great stress. It empowers us to release those negative energies and embrace our own power.It also gives us the physical stamina and courage to overcome the things that are creating the problems to begin with!
It also helps us “digest” unhealthy feelings towards people especially ourselves! This is helpful for those who are self critical and angry or upset with themselves.
Relieve muscle spasms Relaxing and refreshing. For dry skin, acne, eczema. It helps nervous invigoration. Cools the body’s core temperature and relieves Hot Flashes. Peppermint oil has a number of therapeutic properties. It is a cooling agent that enhances mood, sharpens focus, combats irritation and redness, alleviates symptoms of congestion, and aids in digestion.
Antiseptic, deodorant, peptic and tonic. For acne, sudation, greasy skin and hair, dyspepsia, insomnia and nervous exhaustion.
Aroma Benefits: anchoring, strengthening, exotic
Blends Well With: Patchouli, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang, also oriental bases
Safety Data: Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing. Possible contact allergen.
Anti-infectious, nervine and excretory. For insomnia and invigoration of chronic fatigue of the muscles.
The smell of the rose has been celebrated for centuries, and it is commonly associated with romance and special occasions. Women should keep Rose oil handy as its a powerful aromatherapy treatment for issues targeted mainly at females. The rose’s essential oil can also be used to treat cuts burns, a number of skin problems. Calming, relaxing, antidepressant and anti-wrinkle. It helps with a number of illnesses and conditions, such as depression, anxiety and digestion issues. It is also helps with circulation, heart problems and respiratory conditions like asthma. It is a protector of the heart and is also good for your skin. Massively expensive.
Rosemary can be an integral ingredient in many massage oils and body soaks. a natural lift and memory booster, Corroborant, emmenagogue, tonic and antiseptic. For memory, and energy boosting, muscle’s pain, rheumatisms, bad circulation. One of the best tonic massage oils. It helps hair growth. Add some Rosemary oil to your humidifier to enhance memory, relieve congestion and sinusitis issues. Blend it with massage lotions and oils to help stiff, aching muscles, arthritis, liver and gallbladder congestion and digestive disorders. Rosemary oil in shampoos are excellent for stimulating the scalp, and thus hair growth.
Widely known as a mental stimulant, the antidepressant properties of Rosemary oil make it ideal for enhanced memory, focus and overall brain performance. It also acts as an analgesic, soothing aching, cramping muscles, headaches and migraines. As an antiseptic it helps with digestive and liver infections. It is great for skin issues as well. (Check for safety)
Antiseptic. For cold, fever, stomach’s and peptic problems, cellulites, obesity, herpes and menstruation’s problems. It is considered decongestant for blood circulation.
Calming, anti-ageing and cardiotonic. The sandalwood essential is derived from the sandalwood tree that goes through an elaborate manufacturing process. This essential oil can be used to treat infections and counter inflammation. Restorative, aphrodisiac, soothing. Calming effect on the brain – was traditionally used in meditation. (If prone to allergies use with caution.)
Tea tree oil is sometimes called a “medicine cabinet in a bottle.” This essential oil can treat bacteria, fungi, viruses, and stimulate the immune system. Antiseptic and local anaesthetic. For mycosis, enteric parasites and various infections.
While thyme is usually associated with the kitchen, it also has many aromatherapy applications. Learn how this essential oil can be used to fight infections.
The ylang ylang essential oil is used to relax both the mind and body. Calming, antiseptic, aphrodisiac. For hypertension and skin diseases. Useful for treating anxiety, depression, stress and tension. Creates a sense of relaxed wellbeing. Euphoric, aphrodisiac, sensuous, calming.Floral and exotic – a luxurious fragrance. (Use in moderation, the heady aroma can cause headaches or nausea.)
- Battaglia S. The Complete Guide to Aromatherapy. 2nd edition, The International Centre of Holistic Aromatherapy, Australia, 2003
- Crow, David, L.Ac. “How to Use Essential Oils Effectively.” (Yogi Times, Nov, 2004).
- Davis P. Aromatherapy an A-Z. New revised edition C.W. Daniel Company Limited, England, 1999
- Mojay G. Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit, Henry Holt and Company Inc., England, 1996
- Schnaubelt K. Advanced Aromatherapy,The Science of Essential Oil Therapy, Healing Arts Press, USA, 1998
- Schnaubelt, Kurt. Advanced Aromatherapy. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press. 1998.
- Sheppard-Hanger, Sylla. The Aromatherapy Practitioner Reference Manual, Vol. 1, Vol. 2. Tampa: Atlantic Institute of Aromatherapy. 1997.
- Tisserand, Robert. The Art of Aromatherapy. Saffron Walden: The C.W. Daniel Company Ltd. 1991.Tisserand, Robert. Aromatherapy to Heal and Tend the Body. Wilmot, Wisconsin: Lotus Press. 1988.
- http://www.Spiritual-Path.com Spiritual properties of Essential oils.
- [Julia Lawless, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils(Rockport, MA: Element Books, 1995).